In addition to the familiar fire triangle of oxygen, heat, and fuel (the dust), dispersion of dust particles in sufficient quantity and concentration can cause rapid combustion known as deflagration. If the event is confined by an enclosure such as a building, room, vessel, or process equipment, the resulting pressure rise may cause an
An initial (primary) explosion in processing equipment or in an area where fugitive dust has accumulated may dislodge more accumulated dust into the air, or damage a containment system (such as a duct, vessel, or collector). As a result, if ignited, the additional dust dispersed into the air may cause one or more secondary
Combustible dust explosion hazards exist in a variety of industries, including: agriculture, chemicals, food (e.g., candy, sugar, spice, starch, flour, feed), grain, fertilizer, tobacco, plastics, wood, forest, paper, pulp, rubber, furniture, textiles, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, tire and rubber manufacturing, dyes, coal, metal processing (e.g., aluminum, chromium, iron, magnesium, and zinc), recycling operations, and fossil fuel
Combustible dust is defined as a solid material composed of distinct particles or pieces, regardless of size, shape, or chemical composition, which presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations. Combustible dusts are often either organic or metal dusts that are finely
Larger particles of dust can still pose a deflagration hazard (for instance, as larger particles are moved, they can abrade each other, creating smaller particles). In addition, particles can stick together (agglomerate) due to electrostatic charges accumulated through handling, causing them to become explosible when dispersed. Types of dusts include, but are not limited
The first three elements are those needed for a fire, i.e., the familiar "fire triangle": Combustible dust (fuel); Ignition source (heat); and, Oxygen in air (oxidizer).An additional two elements must be present for a combustible dust explosion: Dispersion of dust particles in sufficient quantity and concentration; and, Confinement of the dust cloud. If one
Protecting your process from unplanned downtime, which often results in millions lost in revenue, should be the fundamental objective of every plant operator. In facilities that handle combustible dust, protecting against this unplanned downtime is essential.
Equipment or spaces such as ducts, dust collectors, vessels, and processing equipment that contain combustible dust should be designed in a manner to prevent leaks to minimize the escape of dust into work areas. Any dust that settles on workplace surfaces should be removed through a routinely implemented housekeeping program. Areas or equipment potentially